Abstract Stressors such as chronic hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia may lead to insufficient insulin secretion in susceptible individuals, contributing to type 2 diabetes. The molecules mediating this effect are just beginning to be identified. Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 may be one such negative modulator of insulin secretion. Accumulating evidence shows that β-cell UCP2 expression is upregulated by
Abstract Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial transporters present in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They are found in all mammals and in plants. They belong to the family of anion mitochondrial carriers including adenine nucleotide transporters. The term “uncoupling protein” was originally used for UCP1, which is uniquely present in mitochondria of brown adipocytes, the
Relationship With Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. Three isoforms (α, δ, and γ) have been described. They act on DNA response elements as heterodimers with the nuclear retinoic acid receptor. Their natural activating ligands are fatty acids and lipid-derived substrates.
Abstract Mitochondria play a central role in cell life and cell death. An increasing number of studies place mitochondrial dysfunction at the heart of disease, most notably in the heart and the central nervous system. In this article, I review some of the key features of mitochondrial biology and focus on the pathways of mitochondrial
Regulation of Energy Balance and Carbohydrate/Lipid Metabolism Abstract Hormones produced by adipose tissue play a critical role in the regulation of energy intake, energy expenditure, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. This review will address the biology, actions, and regulation of three adipocyte hormones—leptin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP), and adiponectin—with an emphasis on the most recent