Cancer

Patients with particular abnormal proteins in their blood — a condition known as monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) — have a small, but persistent lifetime risk of multiple myeloma or other hematologic cancers. For more than 40 years, researchers have aimed to define that risk and to identify the patients most likely to progress
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February 22, 2018, by NCI Staff A new study in mice has revealed a molecular link between a high-fat diet and the growth and spread of prostate cancer. The findings raise the possibility that changes in diet could potentially improve treatment outcomes in some men, the study leaders believe. In the study, the researchers also
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Every day in the clinic, I am reminded that we have limited ability to prevent cancer. It can happen despite a person’s best efforts to follow screening recommendations, eat well, and stay at a healthy weight. While we cannot guarantee our future health by lifestyle choices, we can modify our individual and collective risks by
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Staging melanoma requires consideration of multiple factors: thickness, ulceration status, the number of involved lymph nodes, and the presence of metastases.1 Patients with stage II or worse disease are more likely to develop metastases in their lifetime. While the primary treatment for melanoma is surgical excision, patients with metastatic disease require additional therapy; immunotherapy is
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Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has a cure rate of about 75% with standard chemotherapy. Its nearly universal genetic alterations, furthermore, likely contribute to its unique sensitivity to PD-1 blockade. Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) do not, however, have the same genetic alterations as cHL, and are consequently much less susceptible to PD-1 blockade. A newly published
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Almost all cells in the human body have identical DNA sequences, yet there are 200-plus cell types with different sizes, shapes, and chemical compositions. Determining what parts of the genome are read to make protein and which are silenced is orchestrated by proteins called transcription factors. These regulate the availability of distinct stretches of DNA
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February 20, 2018, by NCI Staff Photoacoustic image showing oxygen (red) in tumor tissue after microbubble delivery.  Credit: John Eisenbrey, Ph.D., Thomas Jefferson University A new study in mice raises the possibility that microscopic, oxygen-carrying bubbles may help to improve the treatment of breast cancer. In the NCI-supported study, researchers used these “microbubbles” and ultrasound
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In cancer research, there has been a tendency to differentiate between the genes responsible for tumour development and those that give rise to metastasis and to study these processes separately since the cell functions required for these two mechanisms differ radically. Researchers headed by Jordi Casanova at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)
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A principios de cada año, la American Society of Clinical Oncology (Sociedad Estadounidense de Oncología Clínica, ASCO por sus siglas en inglés) publica su informe sobre Avances clínicos en oncología. Este detallado informe se publica en el Journal of Clinical Oncology, la revista de oncología clínica de la American Society of Clinical Oncology, y cubre
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Commercially available circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) gene mutation panels, forms of “liquid biopsies,” do not always yield the same results for the same patients, reported authors of a study published in JAMA Oncology.1 “Based on our findings, we can conclude only that the results between these 2 companies’ tests rarely match, even when both are
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An international team of scientists has developed a water-soluble “warped nanographene,” a flexible molecule that is biocompatible and shows promise for fluorescent cell imaging. The new nanographene molecule also induces cell death when exposed to blue laser light. Further investigation is required to determine how nanocarbons could be used for a range of biological applications,
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February 16, 2018, by Norman E. Sharpless, M.D. Credit: National Cancer Institute Nearly every established cancer researcher recalls the travails of securing their first independent grants. They also likely remember that the struggle didn’t end there, that more hard work was needed to secure that next round of funding so they could complete important projects
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The 2018 Cancer Survivorship Symposium: Advancing Care and Research is being held February 16 and 17 in Orlando, FL. This collaborative meeting is designed to help health professionals working in the cancer care system understand the needs of survivors and to help develop models of care to support them. In this podcast, Timothy Gilligan, MD,
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Fish and fish-derived products, such as fish oil or specific fatty acids, have been extensively studied for their effects on cancer risk and outcomes. This fact sheet focuses on fish consumption. Multiple epidemiologic studies have compared the effect of high vs low fish consumption on various cancer types. Fish consumption has not, however, been associated
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A newly identified mutation, passed down through the X-chromosome, is linked to earlier onset of ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in father and sons. Kunle Odunsi, Kevin H. Eng and colleagues at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, New York, report these findings February 15th, 2018, in PLOS Genetics. In earlier studies,
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The team that first unveiled the rapid, inexpensive, highly sensitive CRISPR-based diagnostic tool called SHERLOCK has greatly enhanced the tool’s power, and has developed a miniature paper test that allows results to be seen with the naked eye — without the need for expensive equipment. The SHERLOCK team developed a simple paper strip to display
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February 15, 2018, by NCI Staff FDA has approved abiraterone (Zytiga®), in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), to treat hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Credit: Adapted from Front Oncol. Dec. 2013. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2013.00293. Creative Commons 3.0. Even more men with advanced prostate cancer may benefit from the drug abiraterone (Zytiga®), after the Food and Drug Administration
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Cancer immunotherapies are ushering in an era of new promise and, it is now clear, new problems. Recognition of an increasing number of unique and unexpected adverse events — sometimes appearing long after treatment ends — prompted the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer to form a Toxicity Management Working Group and to put out a
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Biologic treatments for cancer, such as immunotherapy, are a growing field of drug research and development. These new treatments have had a remarkable effect on the lives of people with cancer, but they often come with high price tags. These new treatments have had a remarkable effect on the lives of people with cancer, but
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