Clinical Trials & Research

Research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition by Kaczmarek and colleagues investigated the effects of diet and circadian rhythm on gut microbiota.   The gastrointestinal microbiota is the collection of microorganisms, including bacteria, which reside within the gut. Previous research has suggested that diet and circadian rhythm, prebiotic consumption, and environmental factors such
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Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic conditions which are thought to have many different causes. A recent review examines the environmental factors of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are relapsing and remitting conditions which are thought to have multifactorial causes. Throughout the years, there has been an
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Long-term intensive training results in changes in the heart known as “athlete’s heart”. A recent article compared the heart function of female athletes and sedentary females. Long-term intensive training and increases in oxygen demand often lead to morphological and mechanical changes in the heart. These changes, also known as “athlete’s heart”, happen in order to
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In a recent study, researchers assess the effectiveness of the composition of food supplements in increasing fat-free mass in children with malnutrition. Treatment of malnutrition in children typically requires the use of food supplements. However, there is limited evidence to guide recommendations for the composition of food supplements for malnourished children. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM)
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一项新的研究探讨睡前摄入蛋白质能否促进骨骼肌中蛋白质的合成。 人体随年龄增长对蛋白的需求不断增大,例如老年人通常摄入约40克蛋白质以满足机体蛋白合成增长75%的需要。上述需求的变化是由机体中蛋白质合成和分解这一代谢过程的改变而决定的。蛋白合成的增强伴随着在低量蛋白质中添加游离亮氨酸即一种用于蛋白合成的氨基酸。 先前的一项研究显示,睡眠中胃灌食40克蛋白质可为机体提供过夜蛋白质合成所需的游离氨基酸。然而,这一方法更适用于那些自身蛋白摄入不够、机体肌肉组织需要保护的老年个体,而不是作为一种常规手段用于正常健康个体强健其肌肉组织。基于这一事实,一项已发表在The Journal of Nutrition 期刊上的研究调研了睡前进食蛋白质对机体过夜蛋白质合成的影响。 摄入多少蛋白质? 基于双盲及随机法,研究人员将48名男性测试者分成四个不同蛋白摄入量的组别:40克酪蛋白、20克酪蛋白、20克酪蛋白加1.5克亮氨酸、安慰剂。该研究项目的被测试者为年龄超过65岁、BMI值为20-30、不在服用蛋白补充剂的男性。他们在过去的三个月内需参与一项体育锻炼计划或体重减轻3公斤以上。此外,这些被测试者为非烟民、非糖尿病患者,同时,不患有任何影响肌肉代谢、肢体活动、凝血或神经、肾脏及胃肠功能的疾病,也不在进行影响上述机体功能的临床治疗。 为研究做准备,项目参与者在测试前两天内需保持常规饮食,不进行剧烈的身体活动。他们还需接受过夜禁食。科研人员对其进行人体测量及诸如血糖、胰岛素及葡萄糖耐受等基础数据的采集。每位参与者所进食的一日三餐及两份点心均按其个人热量需求定制。他们饮用一种饮料后就寝,饮料中含有按分组制定的特定数量蛋白质。这种饮料包含水、香草精和酪蛋白。安慰组仅饮用含水及香草精的饮料。 科研人员利用戴在被测试者手腕上的监视器采集他们入睡期间反映睡眠状况的数据如睡眠时间、清醒时间、睡眠效率及睡眠潜伏期。基于匹兹堡睡眠质量指数,参与者的睡眠质量从很差到很好被划分成不同等级,那些归入差到很差等级的受测试者则不再参与后续试验。 摄入蛋白量与肌肉组织的增长成正比 研究显示,饮料中的苯丙氨酸提高了所有摄入蛋白测试组的试验结果阳性检出率,提高幅度在摄入最大量蛋白组表现最大。然而,苯丙氨酸自身的阳性检出率却在蛋白摄入组及安慰剂服用组均减低。 综上,睡前摄入蛋白质可增强肌肉组织蛋白的合成。这项研究显示,摄入40克蛋白质即可提高血浆中可用氨基酸的含量,这些氨基酸融入机体中用于肌肉蛋白质的制备。先前研究提示,富含亮氨酸的蛋白质能提高蛋白合成速率,因此,本研究项目在其中一个试验组中添加了1.5克亮氨酸,但实验结果表明,亮氨酸对蛋白合成仅有微弱影响。在实验组中引入体育活动,经过一个较长时辰后来测试评估机体肌肉组织受到的影响,这将是一项有趣的实验研究。总之,这项已发表的研究表明,通过睡前摄入蛋白质来维护老年人肌肉组织健康是可行的措施。   作者: Monica Naatey-Ahumah, BSc 译者: Mingfa Li, PhD, M.D 参考文献: Kouw, I.W., Holwerda, A.M., Trommelen, J.,  Kramer, I.F., Bastiaanse, J., Halson, S.L.,  Wodzig, W.K., Verdijk, L.B., & van Loon, L.J. (2017). Protein Ingestion Before Sleep Increases Overnight Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates
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The NIH has amended its definition of clinical trials to include brain studies, introducing new regulations considered unnecessary by many researchers. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has implemented its controversial decision to broaden the scope of clinical trials to include cognitive and behavioural studies. This change, which has been in discussion since at least
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Researchers determine whether oral corticosteroids, such as prednisolone, reduce symptom duration or severity for acute lower respiratory tract infection in non-asthmatic adults. Acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), defined as an acute cough with at least one of the symptoms of sputum, chest pain, shortness of breath, and wheezing is one of the most common
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Behavioural intervention can help decrease psychological distress among women with a history of gender-based violence. A clinical trial determines the effectiveness of a community-taught behavioral treatment on psychological distress. Gender-based violence toward women has been linked to increased mental stress and psychological morbidity in low and middle-income countries worldwide, specifically in urban Kenya. The treatment
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Given that the vast majority of opiate-dependent individuals relapse soon after detoxification, a recent study investigated whether the use of medications could assist in reducing the severity of opiate withdrawal. With over 11 million heroin users worldwide, the global health burden of opiate-dependent individuals remains high. Opiates are a class of drugs (including illicit drugs
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Despite the availability of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, some patients won’t respond to the drugs or experience relapse. A phase 3 clinical trial examined the safety profile of inotuzumabozogazamin, a novel chemotherapeutic drug which has a potential to be used for relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are many
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In a 2017 study, researchers explored the risks and benefits of levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism treatment in older adults. The findings suggest levothyroxine does not improve hypothyroidism symptoms. Hypothyroidism – underproduction of the thyroid hormone thyroxine and compensatory overproduction of the pituitary hormone which promotes its release, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) –can have profound effects on
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Stress urinary incontinence, a condition in which individuals experience incontinence during physical exertion, could affect up to half of older adults and may lead to a reduction in quality of life. In a randomized clinical trial, Liu and colleagues show that electroacupuncture may be an effective treatment for stress urinary incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence, or
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