Clinical Trials & Research

Dans une étude récente, les chercheurs britanniques examinés le lien entre le végétarisme et les symptômes de la dépression chez les hommes. Les bienfaits du végétarisme sur les différents aspects de la santé sont bien connus, mais ce n’est pas clair quel impact le végétarisme a sur la santé mentale. Différentes études ont tenté de
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Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by the thinning of bones and low bone quality that predispose an individual to bone weakening, making the bone brittle, weak, and susceptible to breakage6.  Since bone is a living tissue, it requires constant repair. A hall marker characteristic of osteoporosis is when the bone breaks down faster than
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Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in women. A recent study published in the International Journal of Cancer evaluated whether severe menstrual pain is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of female cancer-related deaths in the United States with more
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En un recién estudio, investigadores en Bretaña investigan la relación entre vegetarianismo y síntomas de depresión en los hombres adultos. Los beneficios de vegetarianismo en aspectos varios de salud son bien conocidos, aunque no se queda claro cuál impacto tiene el vegetarianismo en la salud mental. Varios de estudios han intentado a responder esta pregunta,
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A newly published study on the effects of a sedentary lifestyle has examined associations between physical activity and physical functioning in a geriatric population. Physical functioning is a key determinant of health for geriatric populations. The drop in the physical function has been found to be associated with disability and mortality. With the increasingly aging
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The increasing use of menthol cigarettes has become a public health burden. Researchers in the U.S have published a paper in BMC Public Health summarizing the role of menthol cigarettes in initiating or stopping smoking. Cigarette smoking is a well-established public health problem and has been associated with a myriad of diseases including cancers, cardiovascular
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Un gruppo di ricerca ha valutato se i livelli elevati di nicotina nelle sigarette elettroniche contribuiscono all’aumento di frequenza e intensità del fumo di sigaretta e vaping. L’anno scorso, è stato segnalato che un preoccupante 11% di studenti del decimo grado della scuola superiore americana ha fatto uso di sigarette elettroniche (vaping) nello scorso mese.
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A clinical trial is currently recruiting eligible patients with type 2 diabetes to determine whether intermittent insulin therapy can preserve the functioning of the beta cells in the pancreas. Individuals with type 2 diabetes either do not make enough insulin or their bodies do not properly respond to the insulin produced. Insulin, a hormone that
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一篇综述论文针对维生素K缺乏与肺部疾病发展相关机理之间是否存在关联进行了调研。 慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)的肺部炎症以通气受限引发的呼吸困难为主要临床症状。诸多研究显示,上述炎症可能并非局限于肺部,也可能影响到其他脏器如心脏,进而导致诸如冠心病类的疾病发生。 慢性阻塞性肺病与心血管病在发病上的高度关联意味着慢性阻塞性肺病患者需要给予抗凝治疗如使用维生素K拮抗剂,这样有助于阻止血凝块的形成,但同时会导致显著的维生素K缺乏。对慢性阻塞性肺病患者进行长期的抗凝治疗会引发病情的急性加重,这是由肺部栓塞所致的(血凝块诱发的典型肺阻塞)。 维生素K拮抗剂通过抑制凝血或血凝通路激活所必需的一种辅因子-维生素K来减少凝血的形成。然而,使用维生素K拮抗剂的主要副作用是导致血管钙化,这不仅是一种严重的心血管疾患,还是死亡风险因子。维生素K对体内一种强效血管钙化抑制剂的激活不可或缺,换言之,增加维生素K的摄入对血管钙化的形成具有保护性功效。 此外,血管钙化和慢性阻塞性肺病患者的病情发展间拥有共同的机理,那就是弹性蛋白的降解。弹性蛋白存在于肺和血管壁中,为这些组织提供弹性及韧性。弹性蛋白的分解与钙化已被证实为两个相互刺激的病理学机理,这一过程可能是慢性阻塞性肺病和心血管病之间存在关联的内在病理学机理。 在新近发表在Respiratory Research期刊上的一篇论文中,来自荷兰的科研人员推断,维生素K缺乏是一种决定弹性蛋白降解和钙化速率的关键因素,进而与慢性阻塞性肺病的病理机制相关。研究人员对现有文献进行了审阅,这些文献涉及观察性和人体研究以及动物干预研究。 导致机体出现维生素K缺乏的原因多种多样,其中包括维生素K摄入不足,但并非仅局限于此单一原因。有趣的是,一项大样本的观察性研究报道,在许多国家大量进食奶酪(富含维生素K2)与肺功能增强和肺气肿减少相关联,然而,诸多观察显示,机体的弹性蛋白降解速率越高,则其维生素K的消耗越大。由于高水平的弹性蛋白降解会刺激弹性蛋白的钙化,这也会导致维生素K缺乏的产生。考虑到慢性阻塞性肺病患者并发心血管病的风险提高,上述恶性循环会对患者的生存率产生显著影响。 综上,已有大量的间接证据支持这一推断,即维生素K缺乏与慢性阻塞性肺病患者并发心血管病的病理机制中的弹性蛋白降解之间存在关联。因此,这一推断引发人们对至今仍在慢性阻塞性肺病患者中广泛使用维生素K拮抗剂这一做法的效率及安全性的担忧。进一步研究有必要探讨给予维生素K补充剂可否减轻弹性蛋白的降解以及血管钙化的发生,同时,针对维生素K缺乏与其对诸如慢性阻塞性肺病患者并发肺气肿等疾病发展之间的关联性评估开展队列研究也是不可或缺的。   作者:Lacey Hizartzidis, PhD 译者:Mingfa Li, Ph.D, M.D 参考文献: Piscaer I, Wouters EFM, Vermeer C, Franssen FME, Janssen R. Vitamin K deficiency: the linking pin between COP    D and cardiovascular diseases? Respiratory Research Nov 13 2017; 18:189. Doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0673-z. Chatrou ML, Winckers K, Hackeng TM, Reutelingsperger
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A recent study, published in BMC Geriatrics, investigates the association between total cholesterol and mortality in geriatric patients. It further explores whether this association can be altered with the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs. The association between high levels of total cholesterol and the increased risk of mortality in young and middle-aged people is well established.
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Une étude investigue les expériences ménopausiques chez les femmes avec les troubles bipolaires et si les changements d’humeur sont différents chez les personnes atteintes de troubles de l’humeur. La ménopause est une phase de la vie signifiant pour les femmes, qui se caractérise avec la fin du cycle menstruelle. Toutefois, il existe plusieurs effets secondaires additionnels
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The United States Preventive Services Task Force released a statement outlining their updated recommendations for vision screening in children under six years of age. Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, can result in several visual problems and potentially vision loss in both the affected eye and in the non-amblyopic eye in children. This disorder occurs
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Previous studies have shown a consistent correlation between increasing body fat and vitamin D deficiency. Researchers recently used a mouse model to investigate the effects of Vitamin D supplements on weight loss in rats fed a high fat diet. Vitamin D is sometimes called the “sunshine vitamin” because it is produced by the skin in
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Um estudo recentemente publicado no International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology identifica o tratamento mais efetivo para o alívio dos afrontamentos na menopausa. A menopausa é um processo gradual que afeta a função dos ovários fazendo com que estes deixem de funcionar e que dá descontinuidade ao período menstrual por 12 meses. Tal alteração do
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Recently, researchers in Colombia investigated whether dietary habits and parent-reported sleep teeth grinding were positive predictors of tooth wear. Tooth wear is often defined as the decrease or loss of tooth substance. There are three main causes for tooth wear: attrition, abrasion, and erosion. Some research has demonstrated that as children grow older, tooth wear
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A mother’s diet has previously been shown to influence the baby’s birth weight and preterm delivery. A new study published in the British Journal of Nutrition assessed whether the composition of macronutrients during pregnancy affects the offspring’s birth weight. Scientific literature widely supports the importance of dietary habits during pregnancy for the health of both
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A recent study from China examines the efficacy of fish oil-based omega-3 supplements in controlling high cholesterol and elevated blood pressure. High cholesterol and elevated blood pressure are major precursor conditions for serious cardiovascular events such as a heart attack and stroke. While these conditions do increase in many people with age, it is certainly
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Up to 10% of women develop endometriosis during their reproductive years. Researchers from Iran review whether curcumin, a compound found in turmeric, can reduce inflammation and pain and inhibit the disease progression of endometriosis. What is Endometriosis? Endometriosis is a painful reproductive disorder in which uterine tissue grows outside the uterus.  Most commonly, this misplaced
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A recent article published in Immunity & Ageing reviews the various mechanisms involved in allergic diseases in the elderly. Our immune system plays an important role in protecting us against foreign substances and pathogens. Throughout our lives, our immune cells can become primed to react to unwanted entities, but an over-reaction by the immune system
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A recent study compared the effectiveness of acupuncture for Alzheimer’s with donepezil, a medication used to address cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with symptoms including memory loss, language deficits, disorientation, and personality and behavioral changes. It is chronic and progressive and, while medications may slow the progression, there
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I ricercatori hanno studiato la relazione tra l’età e la diagnosi di ADHD per scoprire se un bambino nell’età per iniziare la scuola abbia più o meno probabilità di una diagnosi. I sintomi comportamentali che includono iperattività, impulsività e  disattenzione sono caratteristiche ben note dei bambini diagnosticati con disturbo da deficit di attenzione e iperattività
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An international research team investigated whether the prevalence of visual impairment was associated with socioeconomic factors. The third most common impairment worldwide is vision loss. In fact, approximately 223.4 million people globally had visual impairment as reported by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study in 2010. Moreover, the incidence of vision
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