Clinical Trials & Research

An international research team investigated whether the prevalence of visual impairment was associated with socioeconomic factors. The third most common impairment worldwide is vision loss. In fact, approximately 223.4 million people globally had visual impairment as reported by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study in 2010. Moreover, the incidence of vision
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Researchers investigated the association between diet, nutrients, and trans fatty acids, and the risk of developing peripheral artery disease. Despite many well-recognized risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD), such as smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes, there isn’t much known about the role of diet patterns in peripheral artery disease. There are
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发表在American Society for Nutrition期刊上的一项新的研究在两组西班牙人群中对土豆是否升高血压进行了评估。   土豆因其全球范围内的可获取性、易生产及价格可负担而成为一种全球性主食。土豆是人体获取碳水化合物、膳食纤维、某些维生素以及诸如维生素C和钾在内的矿物质的极佳来源,然而,土豆含高血糖指数,可升高血压,增加高血压发病风险。 血糖指数 血糖指数被用来区分缓效型‘健康碳水化合物’和速效型‘有害碳水化合物’。如果某种食物的血糖指数偏高,那就意味着机体能很快将该食物转化成葡萄糖,进而显著提高血糖水平。因此,通常推荐食用低血糖指数型食品以控制血糖和食欲,同时降低2型糖尿病、肥胖及心脏病的发病风险。低血糖指数的食物主要包括蔬菜、全麦面包及意大利面。 土豆含高血糖指数 土豆含高血糖指数及血糖负荷。一项新近研究发现,食用包括土豆泥及炸薯条在内的土豆与高血压风险增高间存在关联。高血压是导致包括中风、心脏病及心血管病在内的多种慢性疾病的一种风险因子。 一项发表在American Society for Nutrition期刊上的新研究对食用土豆是否升高血压进行了评估。研究人员在两组西班牙人群中评估了受试者四年中的生活方式、饮食特征及土豆总食用量。 受试的两组人群间的差异在于土豆的总食用量的不同,其中,第一组个体每日食用约82克土豆,而第二组则每日食用53克。研究人员在两组个体的舒张压及收缩压上均未检出差异。此外,研究也未发现食用土豆和高血压发病间存在显著关联。 食用土豆不会升高血压 这篇论文的主要发现是:食用土豆不会升高血压,同时与高血压患病风险的提高也不存在关联。有关土豆在慢性疾病发病中的作用研究业已存在众多结论不一致的文献报告,上述这项研究进一步扩大了这一不断增长的文献数量。 先前的一项研究发现,食用炸薯条和高血压发病风险的提升相关,但食用烤土豆、煮土豆或土豆泥则与之无关。因此,土豆的烹调方式可能是土豆和血压升高间关联的原因所在,抑或烹调中的其他原料(如食用油)是导致上述关联的唯一因素。进一步研究应该评估食用土豆的具体细节,以及对饮食的总体营养品质进行比较分析;保持健康饮食或许是食用大量土豆引发高血压的减缓因素。 尚需更多研究 这项研究具有重要意义。现有的饮食指南未对土豆进行归类,一方面,土豆被视为维生素和矿物质含量达健康级别的一类蔬菜,另一方面,土豆为高血糖指数类食物,其使用量应适度控制。因此,重要的是,在土豆食用方面应考虑更广泛的社会饮食特征,以及是否应该将土豆与蔬菜及低脂蛋白类食物或红肉及少许蔬菜进行饮食搭配。综上,进一步开展这方面的研究对饮食指南的完善是必要的。   作者: Neeti Vashi, BSc 译者:Mingfa Li, Ph.D, M.D 参考文献: Hu, E. A., Martínez-González, M. A., Salas-Salvadó, J., Corella, D., Ros, E., Fitó, M., … & Lapetra, J. (2017). Potato Consumption Does Not Increase Blood Pressure
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Un estudio investiga las experiencias menopaúsicas de mujeres con trastorno de bipolar y si las alteraciones del humor son diferentes en las con trastornos de humor   Menopausia es un fase significante en la vida de una mujer, caracterizada con nombre por el fin del ciclo menstrual. Sin embargo, como resulta de niveles hormones fluctuados,
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A recent exploratory study determined if supplementation of Citrus bergamia extract benefits older adults with dyslipidemia and obesity. Dyslipidemia refers to abnormal levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, or fat phospholipids in the blood. Being overweight with an elevated lipid profile is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia causes vascular injury due to inflammation and
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Um estudo investiga a relação entre alimentos integrais, frutas e vegetais e o funcionamento dos rins.   A insuficiência renal crónica (IRC) é um problema de saúde pública a nível global que está geralmente associado à pressão arterial alta e à diabetes. A IRC pode resultar em doença cardiovascular e consequentemente levar à morte. A
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A recent Swiss study examined three leading sports watches, Suunto, Garmin, and Polar, for their accuracy in measuring energy expenditure. The market for sports watches has been growing in recent years.  Indeed, these popular and relatively inexpensive devices look to be a perfect fit for today’s active lifestyles. Comparison of Suunto, Garmin, and Polar Brand
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A 2017 study investigated the effects of the increased adoption of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths among American women, demonstrating how aggressive it might be. Unfortunately, most cases are diagnosed in the advanced stages because there are no reliable early symptoms or
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Researchers have designed a landscape with various standing positions that can help avoid sitting too much and investigated whether people would spontaneously use it. Sitting too much is a health problem that has been associated with the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and may lead to premature mortality. Most office workers spend most
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Motorcycle crashes are a very common cause of mortality and some hypothesize that a full moon increases the likelihood of motorcycle-related deaths. A new study published in the British Medical Journal assessed whether a full moon contributes to motorcycle crashes in the US, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia. Motorcycle crashes are a very common cause of
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Nutrition plays a vital role in the health and physical development of children from their early years. Scientists in Poland conducted a study thoroughly examining the gender differences in child nutrition to prepare for an upcoming clinical trial. It is important to ensure that children are well nourished properly as this plays an important role
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A recent study investigated factors that may influence attitudes towards doping in a cohort of Korean national athletes competing in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Despite efforts by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the rate of positive doping tests remains approximately 2%. Most anti-doping approaches involve a detection approach, where regular doping controls and severe
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Alternative therapies like Traditional Chinese medicine have long been used for chronic conditions like knee arthritis. A recent overview of ten systematic reviews evaluated the safety and efficacy of using Traditional Chinese medicine for knee osteoarthritis treatment. Our long-standing concepts regarding most, if not all of the scientific disciplines are primarily Western-centric.  The adoption of
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An episodic migraine is a debilitating headache disorder with few effective and safe preventative treatments available. Researchers in this study conducted a trial on erenumab, to determine its effectiveness in providing relief for people suffering from episodic migraines. Migraines are defined as a debilitating headache disorder that manifests as a throbbing headache which can last
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先前的诸多研究发现器官移植会增加皮肤癌的发病风险,新近一项研究对上述高风险是否已减低或仍维持不变进行了确认。 对于肝、肾及心肺器官衰竭病症,器官移植不失为一种必要的治疗手段。器官移植本身是一种高风险的外科手术,其长期风险之一是增加皮肤癌的患病风险。有关器官移植之后皮肤癌发病率的研究迄今尚未获得肯定的结果:尽管器官移植后皮肤癌的患病风险升高,临床医学工作者仍需明确这一高风险是否会随着时间的推移而逐步减低或仍然维持不变。 来自瑞典的研究人员对自1980s年代至今接受器官移植手术病人的预后进行了评估,结果未发现差异,但荷兰科研人员对这一结果提出了质疑,他们的新近研究显示,器官移植手术病人尤其是接受肾脏移植的患者其鳞状细胞癌的发病率呈下降趋势。 为评估挪威人群中接受器官移植手术患者的预后情况,来自奥斯陆医院肾脏科的科研人员Syed Rizwi及其同事们调研了移植手术后患者皮肤癌的发病率。相关研究结果已发表在2017年度的JAMA Dermatology杂志上。 科研人员使用了1968年至2012年12月31日期间接受首次器官移植手术的所有病人的数据,这项研究共涉及这一时间段内在挪威完成的全部8026例肾、心、肺及肝脏移植手术,但不包括死亡或术后30天内患者迁出病例,同时,既往有皮肤癌病史的患者也被排除在外。这项前瞻性研究对病人进行了平均6.7年的术后随访并记录下包括鳞状细胞癌、黑色素瘤及Kaposi瘤在内的皮肤癌的发病率。 研究结果显示,在1983-1987和2003-2007两个时间段内接受器官移植手术的患者其鳞状细胞癌的发病风险显著降低。实际上,在对其他所有变量进行校正后发现,那些在1998-2002、2003-2007及2008-2012时间段内接受移植手术的患者其鳞状细胞癌的发病率可减低一半以上。上述鳞状细胞癌发病率显著减低可归因于使用了不同的免疫抑制剂。例如,环孢菌素是1983-1987时间段内最常用的免疫抑制剂,后来已被基本淘汰。医务人员已将注意力逐步聚焦到使用那些对机体伤害较轻、更加个性化的治疗方法,这可能是皮肤癌发病显著减低的原因所在。 这项研究表明,自1980s年代中期以来,既往接受过器官移植手术的患者其鳞状细胞癌的发病率已显著下降,这一现象可归因于免疫抑制治疗的进步及细致临床随访方法的采用。尽管取得了上述进展,但接受器官移植手术患者的鳞状细胞癌发病风险仍高于普通人群,这一结果应该引起病人、皮肤病专家及器官移植医师的高度关注。   作者:Dr. Apollina Sharma, MBBS, GradDip EXMD 译者:Mingfa Li, Ph.D, M.D 参考文献: Rizvi, Syed Mohammad Husain, et al. “Long-term Change in the Risk of Skin Cancer After Organ Transplantation: A Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Study.” JAMA dermatology (2017). Read this article in: English | French | Spanish
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Researchers in Canada evaluate the value of a new gender-sensitized weight loss program called Hockey FIT, designed specifically for men. According to 2014 statistics, 62% of Canadian men self-reported being overweight or obese as opposed to 46% of women. Data indicates that men tend to feel underrepresented in promotional health programs. There is a need
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A recent review published in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology analyzed the effects of common treatments for insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea on sleep and glucose regulation. Compared to the general population, sleep problems such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are more common in people with type 2 diabetes. There is evidence supporting
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Una reseña investigó si hay una conexión potencial entre la deficiencia de vitamina K y mecanismos asociados con el desarrollo de la enfermedad pulmonar. La inflamación de los pulmones en Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) esta caracterizada de la falta de respiración causada de la corriente de aire limitada. Los estudios han expuesto que esta
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Researchers assessed if residents’ participation in sports clubs is influenced by the characteristics of their neighbourhood such as having green or blue space. Physical activity has several positive impacts on an individual and participation in club-based sports has also been shown to be very beneficial in improving psychological and social wellbeing. Due to societal developments,
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