Diabetes

This community-based prospective cohort study of older individuals with normal cognitive function revealed that cognitive decline was associated with a 6-year increase in insulin resistance, after adjusting for age, sex, baseline K-MMSE, education duration, baseline GDS-K, smoking status, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, BMI, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype status. Among the various metabolic
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Animals and treatment Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (Charles River, Québec, CA) were housed two per cage with a 12:12-h light-dark cycle at constant temperature (22 °C). Control group (Chow; n = 6) was fed ad libitum during 56 weeks with regular chow (Rodent Laboratory Chow 5001, Purina, USA), whereas the high-fat/high-fructose group (HF/HF; n = 6) was fed with HF/HF
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Study population The design of the SCHS was described in detail previously42. Briefly, the SCHS was established between 1993 and 1998, and recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45–74 years. At recruitment, an in-person interview was conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect information of diet, lifestyle habits and medical history. Follow-up I interviews were conducted
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Animal Male C57BL/6J mice (H2b) and male Wistar rats were obtained from Japan SLC (Shizuoka, Japan) and male db/db mice were from CLEA Japan (Tokyo, Japan). The Glp1r−/− C57BL/6J (Glp1r KO) mice generated and provided by Dr. D.J. Drucker at University of Toronto and Dr. Y. Yamada at Akita University26. The animals were housed in
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Cells culture and reagents Stable HK-2 cell lines are derived from human kidney tubule cells. HK-2 cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (Gibco, lifetechnologies, China) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Gibco, lifetechnologies, USA), 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 mg/ml streptomycin, maintained at 37 °C with 5% CO2. PA (Sigma) was conjugated with fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin
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Chemicals and reagents Potassium hydroxide (1 M), sodium hydroxide (1 M), sodium bicarbonate (50 mM), anhydrous sodium sulphate, sulphuric acid (3 M), and 2,3,3,3-d4-alanine were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, USA). Cambridge Isotope Laboratories (Andover, USA) supplied the three other internal standards; 2,2,4,4-d4-citric acid, 2,3,4,5,6-d5-phenylalanine, and 3,3-d2-tyrosine. Methanol (Optima grade) was bought from Adamas-beta® (Shanghai, China); chloroform from Chongqing
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As described in the methods section, the principal components were subjected to K-Means cluster analysis. The cluster analysis resulted in four clusters (Fig. 2) with the predominant variables seen in Table 1. Each such cluster may form a phenotype. Differences between the clusters are illustrated in the Supplementary graphs. The overlaps between the clusters are visualised in
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Lobeglitazone is a potent anti-diabetic drug with full agonist activity on PPARγ. In this study, we determined the structure of lobeglitazone-bound PPARγ LBD using X-ray crystallography. Rosiglitazone-bound PPARγ LBD structure was also determined for accurate comparative analysis. Lobeglitazone is structurally similar to rosiglitazone and belongs to a TZD drug. In lobeglitazone, the pyridine group of
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Study population This retrospective observational study adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki, and all protocols were approved by the institutional review board of the Catholic University of Korea. The requirement for obtaining informed patient consent was waived due to the retrospective nature of the study. The study included 185 eyes of patients
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A University of Iowa study has identified how excess fat in the heart, a common feature in diabetes and obesity, can harm the cells’ essential ability to produce energy. Researchers believe the mechanism may contribute to the two- to five-fold increased risk of heart failure in people with diabetes. The heart is the most energy-hungry
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For the more than 1 million Americans who live with type 1 diabetes, daily insulin injections are literally a matter of life and death. And while there is no cure, a Cornell University-led research team has developed a device that could revolutionize management of the disease. In Type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing pancreatic cell clusters (islets)
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Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered a cell signaling pathway in mice that triggers vision loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion — diseases characterized by the closure of blood vessels in the retina, leading to blindness. In experiments that suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the eye, researchers were able to
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If you are concerned about your health, you should also think about what your gut bacteria consume. Dietary fiber is a key source for their nutrition. Thus the quantity of fiber in your diet influences your weight, blood glucose level and sensitivty to insulin is well-established. The latest research from Sahlgrenska Academy shows that colonic
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Animals In total, 8–12 weeks old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice were used in the studies. All mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratories and were maintained in mouse barrier facilities. Care and use of mice was in accordance with NIH guidelines and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the
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Cell culture Primary hepatocytes were isolated from 8–12-week-old male C57BL/6J or db/db mice and cultured using a previously described method26. The liver from these anesthetized mice was perfused at a rate of 4.5 ml/min for the first 3 min with Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) (Wako, Saitama, Japan) containing 10 mm Hepes-NaOH (pH 7.4) and then for 17 min
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A drug developed for diabetes could be used to treat Alzheimer’s after scientists found it “significantly reversed memory loss” in mice through a triple method of action. The research, published in Brain Research, could bring substantial improvements in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease through the use of a drug originally created to treat type 2
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Abstract Basic science studies have shown beneficial effects of adiponectin on glucose homeostasis, chronic low-grade inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and atherosclerotic processes, so this molecule usually has been considered a salutary adipokine. It was therefore quite unexpected that large prospective human studies suggested that adiponectin is simply a marker of glucose homeostasis, with no direct
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Hyperglycemia has detrimental effects on normal organ functions in people with diabetes, chiefly contributing to the development of diabetic complications in both central and peripheral organs (1). Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes, results from dysregulation of both glucose intake/production and uptake/utilization. In type 1 diabetes, due to pancreatic β-cell death and insulin deficiency, glucose uptake
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Known T2D Susceptible Loci The etiology of T2D is known to have a considerable genetic component. According to estimates, the heritability of T2D ranges from 30 to 70% (15). According to the Framingham Offspring Study, the diabetes risk OR for an individual with one affected parent was 3.4–3.5, and the OR increased to 6.1 when
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By Max Bingham, PhD Metformin/AICAR for Pain Relief in Diabetic Neuropathy: Underlying Mechanisms Proposed A potential molecular mechanism involving AMPK and an ion channel (TRPA1) that is involved in pain and stress sensing has been linked to diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which Wang et al. (p. 98) say might be a therapeutic target for the painful
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PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION The American Diabetes Association offers a variety of continuing education opportunities and materials for health care professionals. Educational offerings include live and free online programs. For more information, including a complete list of American Diabetes Association programs, please visit professional.diabetes.org/ce. SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS The 78th annual American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions will be held
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1. European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) & European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). EASL-EASD-EASO clinical practice guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Hepatol. 64, 1388–1402 (2016). 2. Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF). AISF
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1. European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) & European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). EASL-EASD-EASO clinical practice guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Hepatol. 64, 1388–1402 (2016). 2. Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF). AISF
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Below are some helpful strategies to use next time your patients cite any of the following self-defeating barriers to getting active. Do you feel like conversations with your patient about physical activity are going nowhere? Like many things, behavior modification starts with a conversation. To determine how
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For millions of people with type 2 diabetes, ongoing vigilance over the amount of sugar, or glucose, in their blood is the key to health. A finger prick before mealtimes and maybe an insulin injection is an uncomfortable but necessary routine. Researchers with NIH’s National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) have devised an
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1. Statistics and Information Department. Vital statistics 2014. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare http://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/jinkou/kakutei14/index.html (2014). 2. Faris, J. E. et al. FOLFIRINOX in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center experience. Oncologist. 18, 543–548 (2013). 3. Huxley, R., Ansary-Moghaddam, A., Berrington de Gonzalez, A., Barzi, F. & Woodwad, M. Type-II diabetes
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