Drugs

A recent study published in Biomed Central Pulmonary Medicine assesses the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness in First Nation communities across Canada. Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with factors including body mass index, age, and sex. Environmental influences such as socioeconomic status and employment also impact excessive daytime sleepiness. Development of the condition may result
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Science now has a new “omics” — an interactomics, which deals with the interactions between proteins and small molecules. Having previously focused on genomics or proteomics, system biologists can now add protein-metabolite interactomics to the mix. Genomics is concerned with the systematic analysis of all of an organism’s genes, while proteomics deals with the entire
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In a recent study, researchers determine whether financial incentives would improve breastfeeding rates in a UK population. Although breastfeeding and its numerous effects on a newborn’s well-being have long been established as being extremely beneficial, financial incentives could have greater effects on improving breastfeeding rates in communities where breastfeeding rates are low. This study, published
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Rutgers engineers have invented a “4D printing” method for a smart gel that could lead to the development of “living” structures in human organs and tissues, soft robots and targeted drug delivery. The 4D printing approach here involves printing a 3D object with a hydrogel (water-containing gel) that changes shape over time when temperatures change,
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Researchers in China investigated whether combining old-world herbal remedies with today’s pharmaceuticals could slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s patients. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the accumulation of toxic proteins in the brain, leading to cognitive decline, loss of memory, and dementia. It is estimated that nearly 50 million people worldwide may be
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Short and long-term effects of premature birth can lead to poor health outcomes in infants. This study investigates the effects of premature birth on the infant gut microbiome, and its association with growth, medication intake, and overall health. Infants born before 37 weeks gestation, or preterm infants, experience increased short-term complications including respiratory and cardiovascular
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Migraines affect millions of people worldwide, which leads many to look for effective migraine treatments. Moore and colleagues sought to determine how often Australian patients are using chiropractors as part of their migraine treatment regimes. Migraines are recurrent, moderate to severe headaches that can last for several days. They are often linked to nausea and
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Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, may be worsened by metabolic syndrome in obese individuals. A group of Spanish researchers investigated whether high cholesterol is linked to osteoarthritis independently of weight. Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is a common joint disorder that results in joint pain, immobility, and serious changes to the structure of the joints.
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Modern hormonal contraceptives are used frequently worldwide among women. A research group recently analyzed whether modern hormonal contraceptives affected breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women in Denmark. It is estimated that over 140 million women worldwide use hormonal contraception. The hormone estrogen is known to contribute to the initiation of breast cancer. Because hormonal contraception
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A recent study published inEnvironmental Health evaluates the association between air pollution such as ozone and particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Air pollution is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Based on epidemiological studies, the strongest association occurs between particulate matter (the sum of tiny particles and liquid droplets suspended in the air) and
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Enterococci are hardy microbes that thrive in the gastrointestinal tracts of nearly all land animals, including our own, and generally cause no harm. But their ruggedness has lately made them leading causes of multi-drug-resistant infections, especially in settings like hospitals where antibiotic use disrupts the natural balance of intestinal microbes. So the discovery of a
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Living with a chronic disease impacts the way an individual perceives life. In a recent study, researchers surveyed patients with cardiovascular disease to determine the relationship between life satisfaction and changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in most developed countries. In 2013, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for up
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Screening a class of recently-developed drug compounds — so-called “CDK inhibitors” capable of blocking CDK7/12/13 proteins — against hundreds of different human cancer cell lines, researchers at Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center have found that CDK12 inhibitors pack a particularly lethal punch to Ewing sarcoma, a rare cancer typically affecting children and young
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In both cell cultures and mouse models, a drug used to treat Hepatitis C effectively protected and rescued neural cells infected by the Zika virus — and blocked transmission of the virus to mouse fetuses. Writing in the current online issue of the journal Scientific Reports, researchers at University of California San Diego School of
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A Singapore-India collaborative research project between the Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD) and CSIR-National Chemical Laboratories (NCL) completed phenotypic screening of a large collection of potent chemical inhibitors (known as MMV Malaria Box), against pathogenic parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, causative agents of human toxoplasmosis and malaria. This knowledge opens up new
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Researchers studied whether treating asthma with omalizumab reduced the frequency and severity of rhinovirus (RV) illnesses in asthmatic children. Past studies have alluded to the association between allergic sensitization and the increased prevalence of viral respiratory illnesses, in particular, those caused by rhinoviruses (RV). These viral infections can lead to asthma-related exacerbations. Since IgE antibodies
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Although antipsychotic drugs are among the most widely prescribed medications, individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism-spectrum disorders often experience severe side effects because the drugs interact with dozens of other brain receptors. Now, scientists at the UNC School of Medicine and UC San Francisco (UCSF) have solved the first high-resolution crystal structure of the
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Two different proteins work separately as well as synergistically to feed a small pool of stem cells that help bladder cancer resist chemotherapy, research led by a Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientist suggests. The finding, published online in Cancer Research, could lead to new targets to fight this deadly disease and potentially other cancers
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A recent news story in Science discusses why targeting the LEAP2-ghrelin system may help to treat chronic conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Twenty years ago, researchers discovered the “hunger hormone” ghrelin. Investigators initially thought that ghrelin might stimulate one’s appetite; therefore, it was logical to hypothesize that blocking it would reduce one’s appetite and
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