Mental Health

Hyperhidrosis is a common medical condition characterized by excessive sweating. A recent systematic literature review investigated the efficacy and safety of several common Hyperhidrosis therapies. Hyperhidrosis is a chronic autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating that affects approximately 4.8% of the United States population. The condition can significantly reduce the quality of life by negatively
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-known problem in children, adolescents and adults, but the long-term effects of stimulants such as Ritalin during childhood when the brain is still developing remain unclear. A recent study showed that levels of ϒ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the adult prefrontal cortex were decreased in patients who had begun stimulant
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Basal levels of steroid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are not significantly different in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder compared with non-trauma-exposed subjects. Approximately 10% of individuals exposed to traumatic events develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Symptoms of PTSD include re-experiencing the traumatic event, negative cognitive and mood changes, and hyper-reactivity. To further
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Scientists compared three anti-epileptic drugs including one branded Lamotrigine and two lamotrigine-generic drugs and found them to be bioequivalent. Now we know: branded and generic drugs can be substituted with confidence. It is estimated that nearly 80% prescriptions filled in the US are for generic drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that
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Scientists at the Center for Injury Research and Prevention at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia asked the question; “what is the association between attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and car crashes involving young adult drivers, and does this vary by sex, licensing age, and/or being prescribed ADHD medication?” Car crashes are the leading cause of death
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Brain gene expression associated with depression differed markedly between men and women in a study by NIMH-funded researchers.  Such divergent “transcriptional signatures” may signal divergent underlying illness processes that may require sex-specific treatments, they suggest. Experiments in chronically-stressed male and female mice that developed depression-like behaviors largely confirmed the human findings. NIMH grantee Eric Nestler,
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PET scanning revealed elevated translocator protein in several regions comprising the neurocircuitry of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), indicating a pathogenic role for microglia in the neuropathogenesis of OCD. Though several Hollywood stars have been diagnosed with OCD, no one is better remembered for suffering from this debilitating condition than Howard Hughes of ‘The Aviator’. Characterized
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After decades of relative neglect, star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes are finally getting their due. To gather insight into a critical aspect of brain development, a team of scientists examined the maturation of astrocytes in 3-D structures grown in culture dishes to resemble human brain tissue. The study, which confirms that the lab-grown cells develop
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a well-known treatment for tremor related to Parkinson’s disease, but the research surrounding its efficacy with multiple sclerosis tremors remains inconclusive. DBS of two thalamic nuclei was found to significantly decrease tremor severity over the course of 6 months in individuals with multiple sclerosis tremors. Multiple sclerosis
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Maternal depression leads to poor quality of life for the entire family, especially in low-income households where effective treatment is a challenge. Problem-solving education was found to be an effective depression prevention method in mothers of the Head Start community, a federally funded early-childhood education program for children and their families. Head Start is a
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At least some cases of schizophrenia may be caused by an illness process rooted in wayward support cells instead of the neurons they sustain, suggest experiments by NIMH-funded researchers. Such glial cells, generated – via a disease-in-a-dish technology – from patients with childhood onset schizophrenia, stunted neural circuit development when grafted into developing mouse brains.
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is indicated for the treatment of many intractable neurological illnesses such as Parkinson’s diseases, Tourette’s syndrome, and obsessive compulsive disorder. It has also been used in experimental trials for treatment of major depression, stroke recovery, and several other conditions. DBS represents a widely applicable treatment for many neurological diseases but it
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 An expert panel has published guidelines for treatment of Pediatric Acute Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and a subset of patients diagnosed with PAN Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). The syndrome of sudden onset obsessive compulsive disorder and/or severe eating restrictions, and associated characteristic cognitive, behavioral or neurological symptoms, was first identified in the l990s
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Depression and anxiety are often prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these patients do not often seek traditional therapy. A recent study reports that telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy significantly improved symptoms of depression in COPD patients after an eight-week telephone program. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a well-known disease affecting
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No two cases of depression are alike, and approximately 20% of depression patients do not respond to any treatment. MRI was used to predict depression treatment outcomes by examining connectivity of the subcallosal cingulate cortex. Depression is an incredibly common mental disorder that affects more than 3 million people in the US each year and
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Recent research published in JAMA Psychiatry investigated depressive symptoms prior to dementia diagnoses and found no evidence to suggest that depression and dementia are linked. A team of researchers at the University College London, in England, conducted a study to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptoms and how they relate to later diagnoses of dementia.
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Depressive disorders can develop during or after pregnancy, and studies have shown that they increase risk of maternal suicide and complications such as low birthweight and infant malnutrition. A recent study published in the Lancet Psychiatry identified clinical differences in perinatal depressive symptoms based on symptom type, severity, and timing of onset. According to the
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The serotonin hypothesis of autism posits that fetal exposure to high levels of serotonin may increase the risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A new study investigated whether children born to mothers using prescription antidepressants that modulate serotonin levels were more likely to be diagnosed with ASD. Depression is one of the most frequent
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Individuals in the 50-64 age category with both diabetes and depression experienced a significant acceleration in memory loss compared to individuals with only one, or neither condition. Previous research found that having type 2 diabetes increases a person’s risk of developing depression. Conversely, having depression increases a person’s risk of developing diabetes. Both conditions are
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A recent study investigating the relationship between diet and depression found that no significant dietary changes occur in senior adults at the onset of depression. Depression is a medical condition that affects more than 15 million American adults and contributes substantially to the global burden of disease. Despite this, researchers and clinicians have failed to
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There is growing interest in the role of the brain’s immune system in psychiatric disorders – in particular, the microglial cells. Several studies have shown that some patients with psychiatric disorders have increased microglia activity but the implications are still unclear. The disease processes involved in psychiatric illnesses are not well-understood. The possibility that the
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An environmental research letter highlights the potential correlation between weather-related nitrous oxide levels and prenatal stress contributing to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Increasing global awareness of climate change piques public curiosity about human-environment interactions. Environmental effects on health are of particular interest lately, as they relate to the etiology of various disorders. Exploring this correlation
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically treated with medication; however, this approach has limitations. Behavioural therapy, through the use of neurofeedback (NF) training has been shown to be of value in the treatment of ADHD for children and, when administered in conjunction with medication, may help to reduce the symptoms of ADHD observed by
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